Rules and Guidelines for Vietnamese Braille

Submitted by mytien on Tue, 04/17/2018 - 20:41

Printed version of the textbook "Physics Grade 11"

 

To help interested people have a more convenient source of reference, Sao Mai team would like to share this series, introducing tables of codes and rules for Vietnamese Braille. We welcome all feedback and suggestions via our email at support@saomaicenter.org.

 

Braille is a tactile writing system using 6 dots in each rectangular block, including dots 1, 2, 3 from top to bottom in the left column and dots 4, 5, 6 in the right column. So, with a block, we can present 64 characters (including the "space"). As in daily printed documents, there are thousands of different characters, people need some sets of codes and their writing rules to convert a particular text into Braile.

 

Nowadays, many English-speaking countries already have a common Braille code standard called UEB (Unified English Braille). In Vietnam, however, much effort has been made to create a "unified Vietnamese Braille" but with all those improvements, people just can use Braille in simple documents. For more complicated characters used in technical documents or music sheets, there are still a lot of controversies. In this article, we would like to introduce a set of Braille code tables that is currently used widely in Vietnam. At the beginning of each table, together with the rules, we present related information about the characters listed.

Please note, in order to read the "Shown in display" column properly, you need to have a Braille font installed on your computer. If you haven't had one, you can download Simbraille at SIMBRL.ttf.

 

Braille translation of the Textbook "Physics Grade 11", by Sao Mai Braille

 

Vietnamese Alphabet

At first, the Vietnamese Braille letter "đ" was written as "d" in the Latin Braille (dots 145) and the letter "d" was written as "z" in the Latin Braille (dots 1356). However, these rules were changed later to avoid conflicts with the Latin Braille, which means putting back the "d" and "z" to their original places and creating a new code for "đ" as 2346.

No.

Character

Dots

Shown in display

Notes

1

a

1

a

 

2

ă

345

>

 

3

â

16

*

 

4

b

12

b

 

5

c

14

c

 

6

d

145

d

 

7

đ

2346

!

 

8

e

15

e

 

9

ê

126

<

 

10

f

124

f

 

11

g

1245

g

 

12

h

125

h

 

13

i

24

i

 

14

j

245

j

 

15

k

13

k

 

16

l

123

l

 

17

m

134

m

 

18

n

1345

n

 

19

o

135

o

 

20

ô

1456

?

 

21

ơ

246

{

 

22

p

1234

p

 

23

q

12345

q

 

24

r

1235

r

 

25

s

234

s

 

26

t

2345

t

 

27

u

136

u

 

28

ư

1256

|

 

29

v

1236

v

 

30

w

2456

w

 

31

x

1346

x

 

32

y

13456

y

 

33

z

1356

Z

 

 

Tone Letters

Rules:

  1. Put the tone letters right before the first vowels and after the consonants (if any). For example: luyến = l-acute-u-y-ê-n.
  2. There are two exceptions in words containing the consonants "qu" and "gi". In these cases, tone letters are placed after "u" and "i". For example, quán = q-u-acute-a-n.

No.

Character 

Dots 

Shown in display 

Notes 

1

Acute

35

9

e.g. á = 35-1

2

Grave

56

;

 

3

Hook above

26

5

 

4

Tilde

36

-

 

5

Dot below

6

,

 

 

Numbers

  1. Put the number indicator before the number in Braille. For example: 1 = 3456-1 (3456 is the number indicator).
  2. The Braille codes for the numbers 1234567890 are the same as the codes for abcdefghij. Therefore, using a number indicator helps distinguish the numbers and letters.

No.

Character 

Dots 

Shown in display 

Notes 

1

1

1

a

 

2

2

12

b

 

3

3

14

c

 

4

4

145

d

 

5

5

15

e

 

6

6

124

f

 

7

7

1245

g

 

8

8

125

h

 

9

9

24

i

 

10

0

245

j

 

 

Formatting Marks

Use formatting marks as in the following examples:

Example 1: A (capital A) = 46-1 (46 is the capital letter formatting sign).

Example 2: number 10 = 3456-1-245

Example 3: 12a (12 a in lower case) = 3456-1-12-6-1 (6 is the lowercase letter formatting sign). This sign needs to be provided especially when a number is written beside a letter.

Example 4: VIỆT NAM (all capitals) = 456-1236-6-24-126-2345 456-1345-1-134 (456 is the capital word formatting sign).

Example 5: TOÀN BỘ ĐƯỢC VIẾT HOA = put the capital paragraph formatting sign 46-46 right before the letter "t" in the word "toàn" and the end-of-capital formatting sign 46-13 after the letter "a" in the word "hoa".

No.

Character 

Dots 

Shown in display 

Notes 

1

Capital letter formatting

46

.

Put before capital letters

2

Capital word formatting

456

_

 

3

Capital paragraph formatting

46-46

..

 

4

End of capital formatting

46-13

.k

 

5

Letter indicator

6

,

Put after numbers to indicate the next lower case letter

6

Number indicator

3456

#

Put before numbers to distinguish numbers and letters

 

Symbol and Punctuation

No.

Character 

Dots 

Shown in display 

Notes 

1

"

236

8

Open quotation mark

2

"

356

0

Close quotation mark

3

?

26

5

Question mark

4

#

456-3456

_#

Number sign

5

$

4-234

`s

Dollar sign

6

%

3456-245-356

#j0

Percent

7

&

4-12346

`&

Ampersand

8

'

3

'

Single quotation mark

9

(

4-126

`<

Open bracket

10

)

4-345

`>

Close bracket

11

*

5-236

"8

Asterisk

12

+

5-235

"6

Plus

13

,

2

1

Comma

14

-

36

-

Hyphen

15

-

5-36

"-

Minus

16

.

256

4

Period

17

\

34

/

Backslash

18

:

5-34

"/

Division sign

19

:

25

3

Colon

20

;

23

2

Semi-colon

21

<

5-246

"{

Less than

22

>

5-135

"o

Greater than

23

=

5-2356

"7

Equal

24

@

4-1

`a

At sign

25

[

46-126

.<

Open square bracket

26

]

46-345

.>

Close square bracket

27

/

4-16

`*

Slash

28

^

4-26

`5

Caret

29

_

4-456

`_

Underscore

30

{

456-126

_<

Open brace

31

}

456-345

_>

Close brace

32

|

456-1256

_|

Vertical bar

 

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