Rules and Guidelines for Contracted Vietnamese Braille (Grade 2)

Submitted by mytien on Thu, 04/19/2018 - 20:35

Contracted Braille translation of the Textbook "Physics Grade 11", by Sao Mai Braille

 

We welcome all feedback and suggestions via our email at support@saomaicenter.org.

Vietnamese Braille has 3 different levels, including

  1. Grade 1: uncontracted Braille
  2. Grade 2: contracted Braille with abbreviations for consonants, dipthongs and rhymes
  3. Grade 3: contracted Braille with abbreviations for one-syllable words plus contractions in Grade 2.

Example 1: the word "con" is written as "con" = "14-135-1345" in uncontracted Braille.

Example 2: "thành" is written as "w;h" in contracted Braille grade 2 = "2456-56-125". 2456 is the contraction of th, 56 is the grave and 125 is the contraction of anh.

Example 3: "thành ph", is written as ";w f9?" in contracted Braille grade 3 = "56-2456 124-35-1456". The word "thành" follows the rules of Grade 3, while the word "ph", which is not listed in Grade 3, follows the rules of Grade 2. See more in the Tables of Contractions in Grade 3.

Rules:

  1. Do not use the contraction code of a rhyme to represent words starting with the same rhyme, such as ai, ơi, anh...
  2. Do not use the code of a rhyme to represent words with three or more characters starting with a vowel/dipthong. Use contractions for the dipthong + the final consonant(s) instead. For example: ưc, uyn, inh...
  3. Do not use contractions for a rhyme if it has the same code as the code of a tone letter and is followed by a punctuation mark, as in "ai", "an". For example, if we use the contraction for "ai" in "tai.", the whole word can be confused with "tướng", because 35 is used for both the acute and "ai", and 245 is used for both the period and "ương".
  4. The acute can be omitted in words with special rhymes such as "ác", "ếch", "áp", "t"...,  which can make exactly the same sound without the acute.

Consonants

No.

Characters

Dots

Shown in Display

Notes

1

ch

146

%

Initial consonant, as in: cho, cha, chanh…

2

ch

13

k

Final consonant, as in: ách, ếch, sạch…

3

gi

245

j

 

4

gh

1245

g

 

5

kh

12356

(

 

6

ng

346

+

Initial consonant, as in: nga, ngon, ngày…

7

ng

1245

g

Final consonant, as in: lang, sang, hàng…

8

ngh

12456

]

 

9

nh

1246

$

Initial consonant, as in: nhan, nhẫn, nhịn…

10

nh

125

h

Final consonant, as in: anh, banh, lành…

11

ph

124

f

 

12

th

2456

w

 

13

tr

23456

)

 

14

qu

12345

q

 

 

Dipthongs

No.

Characters

Dots

Shown in Display

Notes

1

iê, yê

34

/

 

2

oa

4

`

 

3

2

1

 

4

oe

5

"

 

5

3

'

 

6

ươ

156

:

 

7

12346

&

 

8

25

3

 

9

uy

45

~

 

10

uyê

235

6

 

Rhymes 

Please note, oa, oe, uê, uy are the 4 dipthongs that can also be considered as rhymes. 

No.

Characters

Dots

Shown in Display

Notes

1

ac

14

c

 

2

ach

146

%

 

3

ai

35

9

 

4

am

235

6

 

5

an

6

,

 

6

ang

123

l

 

7

anh

125

h

 

8

ao

26

5

 

9

at

12356

(

 

10

ay

23

2

 

11

ăm

124

f

 
12

ăn

345

>

 

13

ăng

456

_

 

14

âm

1346

x

 

15

ân

16

*

 

16

âp

56

;

 

17

ât

2345

t

 

18

ây

12

b

 

19

ăt

23456

)

 

20

âu

346

+

 

21

ên

1345

n

 

22

ia, ya

34

/

 

23

iêc

36

-

 

24

iêm

134

m

 

25

iên

1356

z

 

26

iêp

1234

p

 

27

iêt

12456

]

 

28

iêu

2346

!

 

29

inh

236

8

 

30

oi

356

0

 

31

on

1236

v

 

32

ong

2356

7

 

33

ôi

245

j

 

34

ông

1245

g

 

35

ôt

1246

$

 

36

ơi

2456

w

 

37

ơn

3456

#

 

38

ua

12346

&

 

39

ung

13

k

 

40

uôc

1235

r

 

41

uyêt

123456

=

 

42

ưa

156

:

 

43

ưc

234

s

 

44

ươc

25

3

 

45

ươi

145

d

 

46

ương

256

4

 

47

uyên

12345

q

 

48

ưng

46

.

 

 

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